Spike in electric vehicle sales drives cobalt price hike
Demand and prices for battery material cobalt are soaring as electric vehicles stream out of showrooms in China and Europe, with little prospect of a significant reversal as drivers and governments move to cut carbon emissions, reports Reuters.
Payables - a reference to the percentage of the cobalt metal price used to price hydroxide, a feedstock for electric vehicle (EV) batteries - are up at around 93-94% from about 63-69% a year ago, analysts from Benchmark Mineral Intelligence said.
“Primarily the price rise has been driven by real demand, largely due to the rapid increase in sales of EVs,” said Benchmark’s head of price assessment Caspar Rawles.
“Ultimately, the overall price trend is up, although we may see some volatility.”
Supplies are scarce, partly due to COVID-19 logistical issues in South Africa - which transits material from the cobalt-rich Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) - and after top cobalt consumer China stockpiled metal.
Cobalt demand - mainly for EVs where it is used to stabilise and extend the life of lithium-ion rechargeable batteries - is expected to outstrip supply, creating deficits.
Benchmark expects demand for cobalt to jump 18% this year from last year, or about 23,000 tonnes.
Shortages have been exacerbated by the closure since 2019 of the Mutanda mine in DRC, owned by top producer Glencore, and a decline in artisanal mining.
“There is a very material concern around long-term shortages for cobalt,” said George Heppel, analyst at CRU Group.
Sustained higher prices could see artisanal mining in the DRC rise while also incentivising smaller mines in other parts of the world, Heppel said.
The 127,000-tonne cobalt market will likely flip into a deficit of about 1,000 tonnes this year from a surplus of 1,100 tonnes last year, Benchmark data show.
Global EV sales are expected to rocket 50% in 2021 to 4.7 million vehicles and soar to 14.3 million by 2025, consultancy Rho Motion project estimated.
Smarter Technologies: transforming operations with IoT
Digital technology has become a key enabler of margin improvement and an enhancer of competitiveness in the mining sector. Although the majority of the top mining businesses have already started their digital journey in some capacity, many of the smaller players are lagging behind when it comes to digital transformation.
Smart Mining with IoT
Recent analysis by Allied Market Research, which estimates that the global smart mining industry is projected to reach $24bn by 2027, relays fears that those that don't join the big players in the digital uptake of solutions like IoT, will be left behind.
“As a traditionally risk-averse industry, many mining sector stakeholders struggle to invest in new technologies without a guaranteed return on investment (ROI),” explains Matthew Margetts, Director of Sales & Marketing at Smarter Technologies – suppliers of IoT solutions to the UK’s Ministry of Defence and the Royal Air Force. “Innovative miners at all levels are using new technologies to make mining operations safer, more productive, and more cost-efficient.”
Mines are often dangerous places to work, and worker health and safety are top priorities for mining operations. Smart Mining Technology keeps track of your assets and has the potential to improve mine safety in several ways: locate people, recover machinery and reduce the risk of serious injury.
Autonomous mining vehicles have been around for nearly two decades. During this time, these vehicles have revolutionised mining by allowing humans to communicate with and control machinery remotely. In this day and age, the focus has shifted from the original autonomous mining vehicles to autonomous mining systems, which can carry out a series of integrated tasks automatically. Removing the need for humans to be on-site increases workforce safety.
The benefits of autonomous mining functions include:
- Improved safety
- Decreased incidents
- The ability to work in areas that would be too dangerous for humans
- Increased productivity
- Reduced labour costs
Predictive analysis and insights
When mining assets are connected to the Internet of Things (IoT) and a central management system, this enables operational intelligence. By analysing operational data, mining operators are better equipped to foresee and prevent any dangerous incidents from occurring. The ability to conduct predictive maintenance also means a lower risk of mechanical breakdown and failure.
Wearable technologies have become more advanced and non-invasive, making it easier to track the mining workforce, even deep underground and in remote locations. With real-time visibility of all staff, key workers can be located instantly. In the event of an emergency, response times and recovery rates are significantly improved. Along with improved safety, workforce tracking data can also be used to monitor staff attendance and identify where productivity can be increased.
A series of smart IoT sensors can measure virtually anything - from pressure to humidity, temperature, air quality, gas levels, sound and more. If the conditions in a specific area change in any predefined way, instant notifications can alert teams of potential safety risks and potentially prevent incidents before they occur.
Increase efficiency and reduced operational costs
Making mines “smart” has the effect of lowering operational costs. In a smart mine, key assets are digitised by embedding smart sensors that report data to a central system via a wireless network. Many of the same use cases of smart mining technology mentioned above not only improve mine safety, but also help to reduce operational costs.
Wireless monitoring systems that relay real-time data lower operational costs in a number of ways:
- Reduced reliance on paying human resources
- Reduced reliance on vehicles and petrol costs for data and asset collection
- No need for expensive cabling and system maintenance operations
- Maintaining critical assets more effectively increases return on investment
Having real-time visibility of mining assets allows you to track the location of your mining equipment when you need to use it. This is especially useful as self-driving machinery becomes more widely adopted in the industry. Instead of wasting time searching for various assets, you’ll be able to optimise productivity and profitability by streamlining your operations from your central management dashboard.
Automating the data gathering processes using smart technology reduces the need for time-consuming and potentially dangerous data collection. Access to real-time data is critical to optimising efficiencies and reducing costs. In contrast, by the time a worker has collected information and returned to the office, the data they have gathered is already outdated.
Maintenance and management
With real-time data connectivity and data analytics, you can optimise your mine’s maintenance schedules and production rates dynamically. With predictive analytics enabled by smart tracking and condition monitoring, you’ll be able to quickly identify required changes to predefined maintenance schedules to keep your equipment running efficiently and safely. This too avoids potential incidents that can disrupt or halt operations for weeks or months, in turn keeping the mine running and generating profits.
Although there are barriers to mines adopting new technologies, these must be overcome in order for mines to remain competitive and successful in an increasingly digital age. From improving safety to enhancing productivity and efficiency, smart mines are the future of the industry.